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Author: Καρταλά, Νικολίνα
Title: Gendered counterterrorism: examining legal and political approaches to prosecution and punishment of women terrorists
Date Issued: 2024
Department: Διατμηματικό Πρόγραμμα Μεταπτυχιακών Σπουδών στα Ανθρώπινα Δικαιώματα και Μεταναστευτικές Σπουδές
Supervisor: Χαΐνογλου, Καλλιόπη
Abstract: Terrorism is a term generally used to describe the use of violence in order to achieve political, intellectual, or social goals and it includes acts as the attacking of civilians and public places aiming to spread fear and gain control. Individuals or groups that seek to garner attention for their objectives and induce transformative effects frequently utilize this strategy. Of course, both men and women, irrespective of their socio-economic, cultural, religious, or ideological background, can participate in acts of terrorism. Even though, serious incidents of terrorism are experienced in all Western societies nowadays, this study will mainly concentrate its interest in the United States of America. In response to terrorist activities, the U.S. adopts policies in order to combat the phenomenon and maintain stability within its territory. Nevertheless, these policies often tend to take into consideration the sex of a terrorist, adopting attitudes that are disproportionate to the acts for which a person is condemned, if this person is a woman. Therefore, we refer to these state attitudes as gendered counterterrorism. Thus, this dissertation seeks to shed light to the intricate nexus between gender dynamics and terrorism, resulting in a comprehensive analysis that elucidates the multifaceted dimensions of this interaction and provides a nuanced examination of the manner in which gender exerts its influence on counterterrorism initiatives. Subsequently, it, also, conducts a research on the legal framework and policies that oversee the crimes of terrorism and, especially, the prosecution of women engaged in these activities, thereby unveiling the way they are confronted by the law and whether there are specific regulations in place for their treatment within these constructs. To continue the research on women terrorists, the motivations and reasons that underlie women's participation in acts of terrorism will be illuminated and their distinct roles within terrorist organizations will be explored alongside the way they are being recruited. What is more, the research will, further, delve into the societal perceptions, dissecting the influences stemming from gender biases and stereotypes that regulate the treatment and sanctions meted out to women involved in terrorist activities. Furthermore, the media' s pivotal role in shaping public perceptions concerning these women will, also, be examined. This means that, the way these media narratives could, initially, influence the broader perception of who is a woman terrorist, and consequently, affect the way she will be confronted by the law and the state, will be analyzed. Therefore, the main research questions I will attempt to address are the following. What legal frameworks are in place regarding the prosecution of women terrorists, and how do they compare to those governing the prosecution of male terrorists? How do states and law enforcement authorities approach the investigation, apprehension, and prosecution of female terrorists, and what factors influence their decision-making processes? To what degree do societal perceptions, cultural norms, and gender biases affect the treatment and punishment of women terrorists within the criminal justice system? What are the potential human rights implications resulting from the differential treatment of women terrorists in comparison to their male counterparts? How do the distinctive motivations, roles, and recruitment methods of women terrorists impact counterterrorism strategies, and to what extent do states adapt their approaches to address these factors? Last but not least, crucial for the analysis of these questions appears to be the study and examination of the case studies, originating from the US judicial system, which serve as evidence of the unequal treatment of women in relation to their male counterparts. Thus, human rights concerns arise immediately, concerning these women' s entitlement to a fair trial, due legal procedures, and equal treatment. From all this discussion, conclusions and findings will emerge that aim to question the effectiveness of the justice system.
Keywords: Gendered counterterrorism
Female prosecution
Female punishment
Women terrorists
Female violence
Gender in terrorism
Prosecution of female terrorists
Information: Διπλωματική εργασία--Πανεπιστήμιο Μακεδονίας, Θεσσαλονίκη, 2024.
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Διεθνές
Appears in Collections:ΔΠΜΣ στα Ανθρώπινα Δικαιώματα και Μεταναστευτικές Σπουδές (Μ)

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